Download PDF by Gary B. Cohen: Education and Middle Class Society in Imperial Austria,

By Gary B. Cohen

The improvement of Austrian society within the 19th century used to be beset by means of huge, immense problems, together with sharp social-class alterations, an fiscal base that used to be constructing all too slowly, and, unique from so much of Western and primary Europe, a multiplicity of competing ethnic and non secular teams. by contrast backdrop, Cohen examines Austria's academic procedure, which he characterizes as one of many significant accomplishments of presidency and civil society less than the Habsburg Monarchy in its final a long time. by way of 1910 Austria's secondary faculties, technical faculties, and universities, driven through a becoming well known call for and pressures from neighborhood governments and curiosity teams, enrolled chances of the school-aged inhabitants that approximately equaled, and occasionally handed, these in Germany. The emerging social and political pageant of Austria's ethnic and non secular teams inspired the growth of schooling, and Czech and varnish nationwide teams and the Jewish and Protestant non secular minorities benefited relatively from the starting to be enrollments. those widening possibilities enabled lower-middle-class or even a few working-class early life to hitch the trendy informed heart periods. in basic terms in struggle of the advancements tested the following can one comprehend the recruitment and formation of the bureaucrats and pros who led the Austrian Republic and the neighboring states of East-Central Europe within the a long time after 1918. This examine, the 1st English-language e-book on complicated schooling within the Austrian lands in the course of the 19th century, is suggested for students and scholars within the historical past of schooling, glossy social heritage, and the background of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Additional resources for Education and Middle Class Society in Imperial Austria, 1848-1918

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16 Beyondthe ever-present desires to economize expenditures and combat any subversive political tendencies in the educational system, the governments of Francis I and Ferdinand I feared the production of any more aspirants to the state bureaucracy or the learned professions than were needed. In 1826 the commission reintroduced· the admissions examinations ~hat had been diobp~d in 1804, imposed a limit of eighty students per class in the lower forms, and encouraged a more rigorous weeding out of weaker students.

Theneo-absolutist regime believed that the monarchy must be restored as the pre-eminent force in Central Europe and that it must continue to lead the German Confederation. Impressed by the pace of Prussian development, the new Austrian leaders proved willing to accept parts of the· Prussian model as they charted new policies for state administration' economic development, and educ·ation. 39 Many of the innovative policies and new administrative structures evoked opposition from reactionaries among the aristocracy and some of the Catholic hierarchy, but the trauma of 1848 and the ensuing 24 CHAPTER ONE war with Hungary convinced the new emperor arid his advisors that they must carry out broad reforms.

Before the mid-nineteenth century, families in smaller towns and villages who lacked privilege, wealth, or advanced education had been able to send only a few of their sons to Gymnasien, universities, and technical institutes. At the end of the century, much larger numbers of youth from humble circumstances were able to study even though as late as 1910 the academic secondary schools still enrolled only around 3 percent of all eleven- to eighteen-year-olds and the universities and technical colleges, less than 2 percent of all nineteen- to twenty-twoyear-aIds as matriculated students.

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