By Monique Elseviers, Bj?rn Wettermark, Anna Birna Almarsd?ttir, Morten Andersen, Ria Benko, Marion Bennie, Irene Eriksson, Brian Godman, Janet Krska, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Kstja Taxis, Vera Vlahovic-Palcevski, Robert Vander Stichele
Drug usage learn (DUR) is an eclectic clinical self-discipline, integrating descriptive and analytical tools for the quantification, figuring out and review of the procedures of prescribing, shelling out and intake of medications and for the checking out of interventions to augment the standard of those tactics. The self-discipline is heavily similar and associated generally to the wider box of pharmacoepidemiology, but additionally to wellbeing and fitness results study, pharmacovigilance and future health economics.
Drug usage study is a different, functional consultant to the overview and evaluate of prescribing practices and to interventions to enhance using medications in populations. Edited via a global professional staff from the foreign Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE), DUR is the one name to hide either the technique and functions of drug usage examine and covers parts resembling well-being coverage, particular populations, therapeutics and adherence.
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Additional resources for Drug utilization research: methods and applications
With regard to nonsulpiride drugs, results were largely consistent with previous studies, proving the validity of the prescription sequence symmetry analysis methodology. Reporting drug utilization studies Finally, when reporting results from drug utilization research studies, it is important to follow good practice for reporting. A number of guidelines that were devel- oped in the field of epidemiology can be applied in drug utilization research, including Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) , Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) , the Reporting of Studies Conducted using Observational Routinely Collected Data (RECORD) statement , the ENCePP Guide on Methodological Standards in Pharmacoepidemiology  and the ISPE Guidelines for Good Pharmacoepidemiology Practices (GPP) .
In drug utilization research, subjects can be included on the basis of whether or not they have (or had) been prescribed/dispensed the drug of interest. 1). 4 Examples of cohort studies in drug utilization research. 5 Examples of case–control studies in drug utilization research. Title Design Country The association between prescription change frequency, chronic disease score and hospital admissions  Case–control study assessing the association between prescription changes frequency (PCF) and hospital admissions and comparing the PCF to the chronic disease score The Netherlands Aspirin may prevent cholangiocarcinoma: a case–control study from the United Kingdom  Case–control study comparing previous aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and controls United Kingdom Medication regimen complexity and hospital readmission for an adverse drug event  Case–control study comparing the complexity of the discharge medication regimen in patients with a hospital readmission and controls within 30 days after discharge United States Extent of uncontrolled disease and associated medical costs in severe asthma – a PHARMO study  Nested case–control study using data on drug dispensing and hospitalizations to identify treatment‐ related lack of effectiveness The Netherlands Inappropriate benzodiazepine use in older adults and the risk of fracture  Nested case–control study comparing the proportion of ‘inappropriate’ benzodiazepine use, according to the Beers criteria, between fracture patients and controls The Netherlands Drug–drug interactions among elderly patients hospitalized for drug toxicity  Nested case–control study analysing the association between hospital admission for drug toxicity and the use of an interacting medication in the preceding week United States when researchers specifically search for people with the drug and include them in the study.
9). Under the null hypothesis (no association between exposure and event), and in the absence of selection bias, the ratio of exposed to not‐exposed cases (a/c) is not expected to differ from the ratio of exposed p erson‐ time to not‐exposed person‐time (PTE/PTNE) in the source population. The ‘case‐population’ OR can be estimated as follows: [(a/c)/(PTE/PTNE)]. The case‐population design was used in a study by Roujeau et al. 9 Two‐by‐two table for case‐population studies. Diseased (cases) Population (person‐time) Exposed a PTE Not exposed c PTNE Total n PTPOP c otrimoxazole, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, piroxicam and allopurinol.