By Jorge Ancheyta
Designed for scientists operating for petroleum and catalyst businesses, this article re-examines the characterization and conversion of asphaltenes.
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Additional info for Asphaltenes : chemical transformation during hydroprocessing of heavy oils
Rodrigues Coelho et al. (2007) have demonstrated the existence of a linear correlation in the infrared (IR) intensities of the symmetric and asymmetric aromatic hydrogens in methylsubstituted arenes, in the 2,900 to 3,100 cm−1 region, and of the out-of-plane deformation in the 700 to 900 cm−1 region. 5. FT-IR analysis of asphaltenes shows the presence of different groups such as ˇOH, ˇCH3, ˇCH2CH3. Hydrogen bonded to phenols is present in the range of 3,100 to 3,300 cm−1. , 2005). 5 Functional Groups Present in Asphaltenes by Infrared Spectroscopy Functional Group Absorption Band (cm−1) ˇOH, ˇNH stretch OH contributing to different hydrogen bondsa 3600–3300 OHˇπ hydrogen bond Self-associated n-mers (n>3) 3530 OHˇether O hydrogen bonds Tightly bound cyclic OH tetramers OHˇN (acid/base structures) COOH dimmers Aromatic hydrogen Aliphatic hydrogen 3400 3280 3150 2940 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 stretching regions 2640 3050 2993, 2920 3000–2800 ˇSH stretching regions ~2500 CﬁO 1800–1600 Keton (CﬁO stretching) 1735–1705 Aldehide (CﬁO stretching) 1740–1730 Conjugated CﬁC 1650, 1600 Aromatic CﬁC 1602 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 bending regions Methyl bending vibrations Ether or ester group Ester linkage Sulfoxide groups 1450–1375 CˇS, CˇO, CˇN stretching regions Aromatic CˇH bending Two adjacent H 1 adjacent H 2 adjacent H 3 adjacent H 4 adjacent H 5 adjacent H Alkyl chain longer than four methylene groups 1377 1306 1032 1030 ~1000 900–700 810 900–860 860–800 810–750 770–735 710–690 (or 770–730) 725–720 Obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared.
1990). The most abundant oxygen species were the terpenoid sulfoxides and carboxylic acids. 3% of the asphaltenes amount. However, characterization of resins from Athabasca bitumen has shown similar oxygen compounds by which some structural similarities between low-molecular weight asphaltenes and resins from Athabasca bitumen are present. 5 Asphaltenes density Asphaltene density can be determined indirectly from measurements of asphaltene–toluene solution densities. 14 wt%. Experiments were carried out on the whole asphaltene fraction and on the insoluble fraction precipitated from hexane–toluene solutions of 20, 25, and 33 vol% toluene.
U. 27 SEC chromatogram of Maya crude asphaltenes. , 2007. Energy Fuels 1 (4): 2121–2128. indb 38 11/20/09 12:51:42 PM Definition and Structure of Asphaltenes 39 An explanation about the bimodal SEC profiles has been given by Dabir et al. (1996) who postulated that if the asphalt- or asphaltene-containing solution has not been aged enough, a bimodal MW distribution is obtained, which is due to the existence of two different types of aggregates with distinct structures and mechanisms of formation.