By W. Schinkel
This e-book offers a unique method of the social clinical learn of violence. It argues for an 'extended' definition of violence to be able to keep away from subscribing to commonsensical or country propagated definitions of violence, and can pay particular awareness to 'autotelic violence' (violence for the sake of itself), in addition to to terrorism.
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Additional resources for Aspects of Violence: A Critical Theory (Cultural Criminology)
Whereas the church used to carry out tasks like education, the keeping of birth- and death-records and the caring for the ill, these functions gradually became state-regulated. Philosophically, the popularity of Aristotelianism contributed to the primacy of the state. Marsilius of Padua was the first to unequivocally declare the subordination of the church to the state. Two centuries later, Machiavelli did not even care to discuss ecclesiastical governments because they were too little ‘political’ for his taste.
These things indicate that a growing autonomy of the state existed but had not yet crystallized the way it has in modern times. Several interrelated structural changes took place from the fourteenth 26 Aspects of Violence century on that strengthened it and thereby equally strengthened the state’s monopoly of legitimate violence. These were most of all the development of nationalist sentiments (especially in France and in England), the increasing urbanization and the onset of a new societal hierarchy through the rise of an economic class of merchants in the early Italian Renaissance.
I thus propose to conceive of violence as a process, and to keep this connotation when use is made of the notion of a ‘situation of violence’. Since a social situation ‘is’ not, but takes place, a situation of violence has the character of a process. This will be elaborated upon in the next chapter. In thus reviewing the pros and cons of Riches’ definition, I have taken one authoritative definition as an example. The same could be done to various definitions in other fields, such as Norman Denzin’s symbolic interactionist definition of violence as ‘the attempt to regain, through the use of emotional and physical force, something that has been lost’ (Denzin, 1984: 488) or Raymond Geuss’s political philosophical definition according to which ‘[violence] is […] best understood by focusing on adverbial expressions such as “to act violently”.