Download e-book for kindle: Aristotle's Teaching in the "Politics" by Thomas L. Pangle

By Thomas L. Pangle

With Aristotle’s Teaching within the Politics, Thomas L. Pangle bargains a masterly new interpretation of this vintage philosophical paintings. it truly is broadly believed that the Politics originated as a written checklist of a chain of lectures given via Aristotle, and students have trusted that truth to give an explanation for seeming inconsistencies and cases of discontinuity during the textual content. Breaking from this custom, Pangle makes the work’s starting place his place to begin, reconceiving the Politics because the pedagogical software of a grasp teacher.

With the Politics, Pangle argues, Aristotle seeks to guide his scholars down a intentionally tough course of severe wondering civic republican existence. He adopts a Socratic procedure, encouraging his students—and readers—to turn into energetic contributors in a discussion. noticeable from this angle, gains of the paintings that experience at a loss for words earlier commentators develop into completely understandable as crafty units of a didactic technique. eventually, Pangle’s shut and cautious research indicates that to appreciate the Politics, one needs to first savor how Aristotle’s rhetorical method is inextricably entwined with the topic of his paintings.

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The thesis is written from an explicitly Christian point of view, but it contains only a fragment of Christian theology. ” Indeed, the ethical theory of the thesis does not seem strongly connected with any christological view. The primary object of evaluation in this first of Rawls’s ethical theories is not actions but states of mind. He proposes no criteria of right action, but criticizes and commends attitudes and motives. ” In the thought of Luther and other Prot­es­tant Reformers, sin is primarily a state of mind, a complex of attitudes and motives, rather than a straightforwardly voluntary act or a pattern of action.

But he remained intent throughout his career on showing that toleration did 30.  28. 21 22 Introduction not depend on religious skepticism—that it was compatible with faith in the fullest sense and could be embraced by people of faith. In developing a spe­cifi­cally political form of liberalism, Rawls ­responds to the complaint that a liberal political outlook is simply the political department of a comprehensively liberal philosophy of life—secular, skeptical, dismissive of the idea of a moral order antecedent to human will—and therefore hostile to citizens of faith.

That will accordingly be our focus as we turn to consider Rawls’s criticism of naturalism. 3. The Criticism of Naturalism The main historical targets of Rawls’s critique of “naturalism” are Plato and Augustine, whom he discusses at length in Chapter Three. I will focus on Augustine, as the discussion of Plato is less theological and, for reasons just stated, I believe the issue of illegitimate extension of “natural” relations is most fully engaged by Rawls at the theological level. His main ob­jec­tions against Augustine are made clear enough in a summary in the last paragraph of Chapter Three: The natural cosmos is marked by the following characteristics: (a) all relations are relations to objects; even God may be treated as an object; (b) appetitional desires are the energies of all relations, and all love is acquisitive, hence not love in the Christian sense; (c) grace (when the system is Christian) is likewise spoken of in terms of an object presented to the will as an object of desire; and (d) all natural systems lose communality, personality, and the true nature of God, and are therefore not really Christian but individualistic.

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