By S. Lefschetz

This monograph is predicated, partly, upon lectures given within the Princeton college of Engineering and utilized technology. It presupposes usually an common wisdom of linear algebra and of topology. In topology the restrict is measurement generally within the latter chapters and questions of topological invariance are conscientiously refrained from. From the technical standpoint graphs is our simply requirement. notwithstanding, later, questions significantly concerning Kuratowski's classical theorem have demanded an simply supplied therapy of 2-complexes and surfaces. January 1972 Solomon Lefschetz four advent The learn of electric networks rests upon initial idea of graphs. within the literature this concept has continuously been handled via exact advert hoc equipment. My goal this is to teach that truly this concept is not anything else than the 1st bankruptcy of classical algebraic topology and should be very advantageously handled as such by means of the well-known tools of that technological know-how. half I of this quantity covers the next floor: the 1st chapters current, typically in define, the wanted simple components of linear algebra. during this half duality is handled a little extra generally. In bankruptcy III the merest components of common topology are mentioned. Graph concept right is roofed in Chapters IV and v, first structurally after which as algebra. bankruptcy VI discusses the functions to networks. In Chapters VII and VIII the weather of the speculation of 2-dimensional complexes and surfaces are presented.

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**Sample text**

1): R. 3. Space Duality. 7) Co-theory The spaces of chains CO'C I of a graph G and operator 15 are an obvious example of the situation cinsidered in Chapter II, Sections 4, 5. There arises then an associated graph duality. The only deviation is the reference to the various elements as cochains, 3. Space Duality. , and so one speaks of the co-theory. *'b* _, and Reversing the earlier boundary scheme we ask now what branches (same as end at the node The resulting coboundary is and hence for a cochain <5* This shows that the matrix of to like to A,B,ep is n A*,B*,ep* , in Chapter II, Section 5.

Let nk nk be an endpoint of accordingly as ihnhk > 0 or bh . < Then ih arrives at or leaves o. The obvious conclusion is that the algebraic sum of the currents arriving at the node nk is VI. 52 Hence Kirchoff's first law means that chain i'b is a cycle. 3) =0 or that the The reformulation of the law is therefore: A current distribution is any vector (1. 2) ELECTRICAL NETWORKS i 'b which is a G. Second Kirchoff law (voltage law). is any cochain vector v'b* A voltage distribution such that the algebraic sum of the voltages along any loop is zero.

In this way. One may state the second law Let any loop be given by ±l or O. Then In particular let Al ,A 2 , •.. •• ,R~ j denote the current distribution represented by the cycle UhA h , its value being uh in each branch of Since every current distribution i'v = That is the vector v i Ah . We have then depends upon the o. i(h) we have (1. 4) of the voltage distribution is orthogonal to 2. Different Types of Elements in the Branches every current vector. Conversely, if special current Therefore v v 53 is a coboundary.