Read e-book online API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring PDF

By American Petroleum Institute

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Additional resources for API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems

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If the fluid properties vary significantly with temperature, the worst-case temperature should be used. Alternatively, more sophisticated calculation methods that include temperature-dependent fluid properties can be used to optimize the size of the relief device. --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=US mvd from 2458000/5940240030 Not for Resale, 06/17/2009 13:11:36 MDT Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems 33 For liquid-full systems, expansion rates for the sizing of relief devices that protect against thermal expansion of the trapped liquids can be approximated using Equation (1), in SI units, or Equation (2) in USC units: q= α v ⋅φ (1) 1 000d ⋅ c where q is the volume flow rate at the flowing temperature, expressed in cubic metres per second; α v is the cubic expansion coefficient for the liquid at the expected temperature, expressed in 1/°C; NOTE This information is best obtained from the process-design data; however, Table 3 shows typical values for hydrocarbon liquids and water at 15,6 °C.

7 Pump-around circuit The required relieving rate is the vaporization rate caused by an amount of heat equal to that removed in the pump-around circuit. The latent heat of vaporization corresponds to the latent heat under the relieving conditions of temperature and pressure at the point of relief. 8 Overhead circuit plus pump-around An overhead circuit plus pump-around is usually arranged so that simultaneous failure of the pump-around and the overhead condenser do not occur; however, partial failure of one with complete failure of the other is quite possible.

In this case, if the volume of the source of incoming vapours is large compared with the volume of the low-pressure system or if the source of vapour is unlimited, serious overpressure can rapidly develop. When this occurs, it can be necessary to size relief devices on the low-pressure system to handle the full vapour flow through the liquid control valve. In circumstances where process systems involve significant differences in pressure level and the volume of vapour contained by the high-pressure equipment is less than the volume of the low-pressure system, the additional pressure can, in some cases, be absorbed without overpressure.

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