By American Petroleum Institute
Read or Download API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems PDF
Similar petroleum books
In Petrolia, Brian Black bargains a geographical and social historical past of a sector that used to be not just the positioning of America's first oil growth yet used to be additionally the world's biggest oil manufacturer among 1859 and 1873. opposed to the heritage of the turning out to be call for for petroleum all through and instantly following the Civil struggle, Black describes Oil Creek Valley's descent into environmental hell.
"The 3rd version of this pocket guidebook (6x5. 5¿) for oil box staff is absolutely up-to-date and revised to incorporate references to the newest applied sciences and methods. The paintings presents group of workers within the box with functional step by step directions for acting severe calculations for vital drilling and construction initiatives.
The nationwide Academy of Sciences estimate that 1. 7 to eight. eight million hundreds oil are published into world's water each year, of which greater than 70% is at once with regards to human actions. the results of those spills are all too obvious: useless natural world, oil lined marshlands and infected water leader between them.
- The Properties of Petroleum Fluids
- Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries, Second Edition: Application of HAZOP, PHA and What-If Reviews
- Spectral Analysis in Engineering, Concepts and Case Studies
- Handbook Of Petroleum Refining Processes
- Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Additional resources for API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems
If the fluid properties vary significantly with temperature, the worst-case temperature should be used. Alternatively, more sophisticated calculation methods that include temperature-dependent fluid properties can be used to optimize the size of the relief device. --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=US mvd from 2458000/5940240030 Not for Resale, 06/17/2009 13:11:36 MDT Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems 33 For liquid-full systems, expansion rates for the sizing of relief devices that protect against thermal expansion of the trapped liquids can be approximated using Equation (1), in SI units, or Equation (2) in USC units: q= α v ⋅φ (1) 1 000d ⋅ c where q is the volume flow rate at the flowing temperature, expressed in cubic metres per second; α v is the cubic expansion coefficient for the liquid at the expected temperature, expressed in 1/°C; NOTE This information is best obtained from the process-design data; however, Table 3 shows typical values for hydrocarbon liquids and water at 15,6 °C.
7 Pump-around circuit The required relieving rate is the vaporization rate caused by an amount of heat equal to that removed in the pump-around circuit. The latent heat of vaporization corresponds to the latent heat under the relieving conditions of temperature and pressure at the point of relief. 8 Overhead circuit plus pump-around An overhead circuit plus pump-around is usually arranged so that simultaneous failure of the pump-around and the overhead condenser do not occur; however, partial failure of one with complete failure of the other is quite possible.
In this case, if the volume of the source of incoming vapours is large compared with the volume of the low-pressure system or if the source of vapour is unlimited, serious overpressure can rapidly develop. When this occurs, it can be necessary to size relief devices on the low-pressure system to handle the full vapour flow through the liquid control valve. In circumstances where process systems involve significant differences in pressure level and the volume of vapour contained by the high-pressure equipment is less than the volume of the low-pressure system, the additional pressure can, in some cases, be absorbed without overpressure.