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By Berois, Nibia

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1997. Morphological data in fish systematics: Examples from the Cyprinodontiformes. In Molecular Systematics of Fishes, eds. T. D. Kocher and C. A. Stepien. San Diego: Academic Press, 163–188. , B. Tassino, M. Loureiro, G. G. Rosenthal. 2013. Intra- and intersexual selection on male body size in the annual killifish Austrolebias charrua. Behavioral. Processes 96:20–26. 008 Ponce de León, J. , G. León, R. Rodríguez et al. 2014. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: Evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

E. Thomerson, and G. E. Collier. 1999b. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13:289–301; Hrbek, T. and A. Larson. 1999. , C. P. Deus, and I. P. Farias. 2004. Copeia 2004:569–576; Hrbek, T. and D. C. Taphorn. 2008. ) Parenti 1981 First postcleithrum absent Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Obsolescent preopercular and lacrimal canals Lacrimal, preopercular, and mandibular canals represented by neuromasts Medial process of lateral ethmoid expanded Head scales arranged in circular pattern (Note: Costa [1990] disagrees; Costa [2004] proposed again but modified)a Process on ventral arm of maxilla (Note: Costa [1990] disagrees; Costa [1998] modified; Costa [2004] modified again)a Costa 1990 Costa 1998 Costa 2004 Hertzwig 2008 First postcleithrum absent Membranes over opercular and branchiostegal rays fused Mandibular and lacrimal canals absent Reduced preopercular canal Anteromedian process of lateral ethmoid curved Expanded lateral ethmoid surface pointing toward parasphenoid (Note: subsequently modified by Costa [1998]) Preopercle elongated (with internal curvature reduced) Neural spine of first vertebrae present Cartilaginous interhyal (Note: deleted by Costa [2004], since bony condition in Kryptolebias) Diving into substrate to lay eggs (Note: Costa [1998] disagrees) Absence of the first postcleithrum Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Absence of mandibular canal and reduction of the preopercular bone Well-developed process on the anterior border of lateral ethmoid Triangular ventral process of maxilla (Note: modified from Parenti [1981])a Thin, C-shaped preopercle Neural spine of first vertebra (Note: synapomorphy for Notobranchoidea; Costa 2004) Cartilaginous interhyal (Note: deleted by Costa [2004], since bony condition in Kryptolebias) Straight posterior border of the distal tip of premaxilla Reduced coronoid process of dentary Short ventral portion of autopalatine Reduced uncinate process of the third epibranchial Reduced lateral border of frontal Extremely twisted and narrowed lacrimal Minute dermosphenotic Reduced basihyal cartilage (Note: homoplasic; Costa 2004) Absence of a posterior flange on cleithrum (Note: present in Kryptolebias; Costa 2004) Hypurals ankylosed to form a single hypural plate (Note: not discussed in Costa [2004]) Transverse dark bar crossing the eye (Note: only in Cynolebiasinae; Costa 2004) Annual life cycle (Note: nonannual in Costa [2004]) Reduced mesopterygoid, short snout, and elongate rostral cartilage (Note: not discussed in Costa [2004]) First postcleithrum absent Branchiostegal and opercular membranes united Infraorbital, preopercular, and mandibular canals open Pronounced retrorse process of lateral ethmoid Frontal scales circularly arranged around scale Aa Ventral process of maxilla bent and directed posteriorly (Note: modified from Costa [1998])a Thin C-shaped preopercle Posterior distal border of distal premaxilla straight Coronoid process of dentary narrow Ventral tip of autopalatine shortened Uncinate process of third epibranchial median Shortened lateral rim of frontal lacrimal very twisted and narrow Minute dermosphenotic Posterior tip of ascending process of premaxilla curved medially Ventral process of anguloarticular median Proximal edge of first hypobranchial bifid Supracleithrum and postcleithrum separated A1 Adductor mandibulae with a completely separated medial portion (character 5) A1 Adductor mandibulae inserts caudally on the maxillary (character 14) A1 Adductor mandibulae origin expanded posteriorly and ventrally at the preopercle (character 23) Origin of the m.

10 PLESIOLEBIASINI This clade is diagnosed by the following synapomorphies: absence of an anterior expansion on the ventral process of the maxilla; anterior portion of the entopterygoid not overlapping the autopalatine; anterior retrorse process of lateral ethmoid contacting the main axis of the bone; first two proximal radials of anal fin fused; pelvic bones medially overlapped; increase in number of neuromasts (between five and seven in the anterior, and four or more in the posterior sections) of 18 Annual Fishes supraorbital series; and anal fin with basal region dark gray to black with a row of white to yellow spots (reversed in species of Maratecoara and in Stenolebias damascenoi) (Costa 2011b).

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