New PDF release: Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The

By P. R. S. Moorey

This can be the 1st systematic try and survey intimately the archaeological proof for the crafts and craftsmanship of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians in historical Mesopotamia (c. 8000-300 BC). P.R.S. Moorey experiences in brief the textual proof, and is going directly to research intimately a variety of crafts and fabrics: stones, either universal and decorative, animal items, ceramics, glazed fabrics and glass, metals, and development fabrics. With a complete bibliography, this generously illustrated quantity should be a key paintings of reference for archaeologists and people drawn to the early heritage of crafts and expertise, in addition to for experts within the historic close to East.

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A group of four vessels in a grave intrusive into level XIX at Tepe Oawra included carinated bowls continuing the later Halaf repertory in grey, white and red 'marble' (Tobler 1950: 209, pI. 75-8). One has a pouring lip. In level XVIII the three stone bowls were from graves and in the same 'gray marble' (Tobler 1950: pI. : pI. : pI. 63-6). : pI. 67-70). With the possible exception of the steatite/serpentine, the 'marbles' used for vessels at Gawra during this period, in contrast to what followed, were easily procurable in the locality.

On the northern fringes of Mesopotamia, where the raw materials were readily available, the inhabitants of C;ayonti in eastern Anatolia by the later eighth millennium had achieved considerable skill in the manufacture of polished stone artefacts including vessels in soft dark stones, some with surface decoration (<;:ambel and Braidwood 1980: 48, pI. 46). In northern Mesopotamia the repertory of vessels may first be studied at Nemrik (Kozlowski and Kempisty 1990: 351) and at Tell Magzaliya, where 'numerous fragments of stoneware have been found such as large flat-bottomed vessels, basins, bowls, and pieces of stone mortars' (Bader et al.

Ur alone provides a sequence of graves through the Early Dynastic into the Akkadian period offering the only available guide to the distribution of materials for stone vessels through the third millennium. At every step problems of stone identification (always that given by eye), of chronology, and of typology complicate the picture. Woolley's (1934; 1956) descriptive categories for the stones used for vessels may be summarized: 1. Calcium-based (altered) sedimentary rocks: Woolley generally specifies limestone; but his use of 'alabaster' (usually for gypsum) may confuse the picture for gypsum and calcite.

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