By Stephen J. Simpson
Advances in Insect body structure publishes eclectic volumes containing very important, accomplished and in-depth stories on all features of insect body structure. it's an important reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists and bug biochemists. First released in 1963, the serial is now edited by way of Steve Simpson and Jerome Casas to supply a world standpoint. * greater than three hundred pages with contributions from the major researchers in entomology * Over forty figures and illustrations mixed * contains an in-depth overview of the genetics of the honey bee * Discusses the physiological range in bugs
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Additional info for Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 35
Urate appears to be stored primarily as salts of Na+, but also K+ and possibly NH+ 4 when concentrations of these ions increase, during dehydration. These ions can then be released during rehydration. Urate appears to be present in fat body ‘spherules’, formed as concentric laminations and typically about 9–11 mm in diameter (Tucker, 1977a). Urate and K+ are mobilized from the spherules during dehydration, whereas sodium urate deposits increase at the same time (Tucker 1977a,b). Sodium urate may be present as amorphous granules as well as spherules.
Phloem sap of these plants thus contains supra-optimal amounts of nitrogen with regard to whiteﬂy nutrition. However, after just a few days of feeding on low nitrogen plants, excretion of amino nitrogen essentially stops and there is an adjustment of pools of individual amino acids within the insect bodies (Crafts-Brandner, 2002). Total nitrogen content of whiteﬂies reared on plants with reduced nitrogen content does not decline signiﬁcantly relative to whiteﬂies reared on plants with higher levels of nitrogen.
The axopods of the Rhodnius lower Malpighian tubule differ from those in protozoa in that they branch as they extend outward from the luminal cell surface. The beating of the axopods moves urate crystals, as observed in short lengths of lower tubules, isolated in vitro and open at both ends. Tubules isolated in this way are unaffected by ﬂuid movements produced by peristalsis in the rectum or ﬂuid secretion by the upper tubule. The lower tubule itself is reabsorptive rather than secretory, and time lapse photography studies by Bradley and Satir (1979) show an absence of peristalsis during movement of urate crystals in the lumen.