By Bert B. Williams, John L. Gidley, Robert S. Schechter
SPE Monograph quantity 6. This monograph has been ready to function a simple reference for either the sector and study engineer attracted to constructing a primary figuring out of the acidizing strategy and strategies for designing acid remedies to extend good productiveness.
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Extra resources for Acidizing Fundamentals
The oil and gas ﬂow in opposite directions, causing counterﬂow. The counterﬂow occurs in highly permeable, thick formations with vertical fractures or vugs and conditions such as low oil viscosity and a reasonable high degree of dip. 9. 4 Reservoir Architecture Limitations of Data and Need for Iteration It is important to realize that there are considerable limitations to the information about a reservoir. Simply put, core and logs represent only one 10 billionth of the reservoir. 22 Practical Reservoir Engineering and Characterization It is no insult to the geologist to say that the subsurface picture is frequently uncertain, for no one knows better than he the difﬁculties involved in creating this picture and the constant need for revision as new information is obtained from wells that are drilled.
Different extrapolations will be required for the radial inﬂow and coning regimes. Decline analysis for coning is less accurate than for radial inﬂow, because coning is a much less stable process. Water drive reservoirs The approach for water drive reservoirs depends on the strength of the aquifer. Weak water drive reservoirs can be treated similarly to undersaturated oil reservoirs, except coning models may be required near the water-oil contact. For strong water drives, the material balance is dominated by the aquifer inﬂux.
4(a). The interfacial energy of the droplet is the product of the interfacial tension and the surface area of the droplet, sA. The energy of the interface is minimized if the droplet shrinks. However, as the droplet shrinks, the internal pressure of the droplet increases and opposes the shrinkage. 3) in which DP is the change in the droplet pressure, dV is the change in drop volume, and dA is the change in interfacial area. 4) in which R is the radius of the droplet. 4 Effects of interfacial curvature: (a) internal pressure of droplet, (b) capillary pressure and capillary rise.