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The very source, as well as the potential of various adult stem cells, is still disputed among researchers. We cannot say for sure whether tissue-specific adult stem cells originate within those tissues or are descendants of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. Nor do we know how far these cells can be pushed to differentiate into functional tissues outside their specific type or whether such transdifferentiation produced in the laboratory could be reproduced in a living organism. The idea that certain adult stem cells might have greater potential first came from observations following human bone marrow transplants, when donor cells were subsequently found in a wide range of recipients’ tissues.
Creating that many lines could require millions of discarded embryos from IVF clinics. Some researchers have speculated that such an extensive bank might not be necessary, that patients can be desensitized to ES cell derivatives or that the antigenic properties of the cells themselves can be reduced. But those feats have yet to be conclusively demonstrated. At present, the only sure way to circumvent the problem of immune rejection would be to create an ES cell line using a patient’s own genetic material through nuclear transfer or cloning.
The Harvard group had about the same amount of sequence, 30 million base pairs, in less than one error per three million base pairs with 7× covereach sequencing run. Our system read about 400 base pairs a age. To handle templates, both teams employed capture beads, second, whereas 454 read 1,700 a second. Sequencing usually whose size affects the amount of expensive reagents consumed. involves performing multiple runs to produce a more accurate Our beads were one micron in diameter, whereas 454 used consensus sequence.